Quality Basics

What is Quality?

Difference View of Quality:



Quality Definition (Gurus and Standards)

ISO Standard

  • “Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs”

CMMI Framework

  • The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements.

W Edwards Deming

  • “All processes are vulnerable to loss of quality through variation: if levels of variation are managed, they can be decreased and quality raised”
  • Quality is about people, not products Characteristics

Joseph Juran

  • Company-Wide Quality Management and essential for senior managers to:
    • Involve themselves
    • Define the goals
    • Assign responsibilities
    • Measure progress

Philip Crosby

  • Quality, meaning getting everyone to do what they have agreed to do and to do it right first time is the skeletal structure of an organisation, finance is the nourishment and relationships are the soul”
  • Service companies spend around 35% of operating expenses doing things wrong, then doing them over again

Kaoru Ishikawa

  • “Quality does not only mean the quality of the product, but also of after sales service, quality of management, the company itself and human life”

David A. Garvin

  • “If quality is to be managed, it must first be understood.”


Quality System / Quality Management System

  • A Quality System sets out the standards that we are working to, and how we are going to meet them. The system also define what people, actions and documents are going to be employed in order to carry out the work in a consistent manner, leaving evidence of what has happened.
  • Includes the business’s activities, plans, policies and procedures used in producing quality goods and services.

       A quality management system is a systematic approach to managing quality. It comprises:

  • Statement of the organisation’s approach to managing for quality
  • Scope
  • Each factor in the scope, a specification of the structures and procedures intended to achieve quality
  • Specification of the inter-relation of these structures.

Quality Assurance

  • The planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled.
  • QA deals with how to prevent bugs from occurring in a product being developed.
  • QA responsibility is to create and implement methods and standards to improve processes.
  • QA is associated with activities like measuring the quality of process used to develop a product, process improvement and defect prevention.
  • It consists of auditing and reporting procedures related to development and testing.

Quality Control

  • Procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a product or performed service adheres to a defined set of quality criteria or meets the requirements
  • QC is about evaluating software product, find the defects & suggest improvements.
  • QC implements the process established by QA.
  • Software tester is responsible for QC.
  • If required, personnel involve in QC have to carry out QA tasks as well.


  • Quality Assurance makes sure we are doing the right things, the right way.
  • Quality Control makes sure the results of what we’ve done are what we expected.
  • QA is process oriented and QC is product oriented

Quality Framework

  • A Tool to aid in the successful delivery of projects and services across the organisation. A quality framework comprises:
    • A specification of Scope
    • Specification of the coherent Inter-relation of teams
    • Methods: For each factor in the scope, a specification of the nature and implementation of the ‘quality loops
    • Principles/Processes.

Quality Governance

“Definition of overall guidelines of the process management model, the process control model and the activities of the various organizational units, and involves mainly the distribution of Process Management-related responsibilities within the organization – Briefly, it involves fostering the definition of overall guidelines to orient what should be done in Process Management and how it should be done”.

Quality governance is the combination of structures and processes at and below board level to lead on trust-wide quality performance including:

  • Ensuring required standards are achieved
  • Investigating and taking action on sub standard performance
  • Planning and driving continuous improvement
  • Identifying, sharing and ensuring delivery of best practice
  • Identifying and managing risks towards quality